- The Middle Euphrates river was a heavily fortified eastern frontier that bordered Sassanid Persia (qq.v.) until the Arab conquest of Byzantine Mesopotamia (q.v.) in 640. The Upper Euphrates, from the seventh through the ninth centuries, was a battleground between the Arabs and Byzantium (qq.v.). The fortresses of Kamacha and Keltzene formed the core of the theme of Mesopotamia (qq.v.) in the ninth century. In the 10th century, John Kourkouas, Nikephoros II Phokas, John I Tzimiskes, and Basil II (qq.v.) reestablished the empire's borders at the Euphrates once more. Melitene (q.v.) was reconquered in 934, Hierapolis was recaptured in 974, and Samosata (q.v.) once more fell under Byzantine dominion. However, by the end of the 11th century, the region was again lost, this time to the Seljuks (q.v.).
Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . John H. Rosser .
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Euphrates River — Turkish Fırat Nehri Arabic Al Furāt River, Middle East. The largest river in Southwest Asia, it rises in Turkey and flows southeast across Syria and through Iraq. Formed by the confluence of the Kara and the Murat in the high Armenian plateau,… … Universalium
Euphrates River — noun a river in southwestern Asia; flows into the Persian Gulf; was important in the development of several great civilizations in ancient Mesopotamia • Syn: ↑Euphrates • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑Turkey, ↑Republic of Turkey, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
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